How exactly to write an abstract that is great a clinical paper or meeting presentation

How exactly to write an abstract that is great a clinical paper or meeting presentation

Chittaranjan Andrade

Department of Psychopharmacology, nationwide Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, Asia

Abstracts of medical documents are occasionally poorly written, often lack information, and periodically convey a picture that is biased. This paper provides detailed suggestions, with examples, for composing the backdrop, practices, outcomes, and conclusions chapters of an abstract that is good. The principal target for this paper may be the young researcher; nonetheless, authors along with degrees of experience could find helpful ideas into the paper.


This paper could be the 3rd in a set on manuscript writing abilities, posted when you look at the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Earlier in the day articles offered suggested statements on how exactly to compose a case that is good,1 and just how to read through, compose, or review a paper on randomized managed trials.2,3 The present paper examines just exactly just how writers may compose an excellent abstract while preparing their manuscript for a systematic journal or meeting presentation. Even though main target with this paper may be the researcher that is young it’s likely that writers along with degrees of experience will see at the very least a few tips which may be beneficial in their future efforts.

The abstract of a paper could be the only area of the paper this is certainly posted see post in seminar procedures. The abstract may be the only area of the paper that a possible referee views as he is invited by an editor to examine a manuscript. The abstract could be the only area of the paper that visitors see once they read through electronic databases such as for instance PubMed. Finally, many visitors will acknowledge, having a chuckle, that whenever they leaf through the difficult content of the log, they appear of them costing only the games for the included papers. If a name interests them, they glance through the abstract of that paper. Just a specialized audience will peruse the articles associated with the paper, after which, usually just the introduction and conversation sections. Just an audience with a tremendously particular curiosity about the main topic of the paper, and a need to comprehend it completely, will see the whole paper.

Therefore, when it comes to majority that is vast of, the paper will not occur beyond its abstract. When it comes to referees, as well as the few visitors who would like to read beyond the abstract, the abstract sets the tone for the rest of the paper. It is the work associated with writer to ensure the abstract is correctly representative for the paper that is entire. With this, the abstract will need to have some qualities that are general. They are placed in dining dining Table 1 .

General characteristics of the abstract that is good


Though some journals still publish abstracts which can be written as free-flowing paragraphs, many journals require abstracts to comply with a formal framework within a term count of, frequently, 200–250 terms. The typical parts defined in an abstract that is structured the Background, Methods, outcomes, and Conclusions; other headings with comparable definitions can be used (eg, Introduction rather than Background or Findings instead of Results). Some journals consist of additional parts, such as for instance goals (between Background and techniques) and Limitations (during the end associated with abstract). When you look at the remainder of the paper, problems associated with the articles of every area will be analyzed in change.


This part ought to be the part that is shortest associated with abstract and really should very quickly describe listed here information:

What’s currently understood concerning the topic, regarding the paper at issue

What exactly is as yet not known concerning the topic and therefore just what the study meant to examine (or just just just what the paper seeks presenting)

More often than not, the back ground could be framed in only 2–3 sentences, with every phrase explaining a new aspect of the information described above; often, also an individual phrase may suffice. The objective of the backdrop, because the term itself suggests, would be to give you the reader having a history to your research, and therefore to efficiently lead into a description associated with practices used in the research.

Some writers publish documents the abstracts of that incorporate a long back ground part. There are a few circumstances, maybe, where this can be justified. More often than not, nevertheless, an extended back ground area implies that less room stays when it comes to presentation regarding the results. This really is regrettable as the audience is enthusiastic about the paper due to the findings, and never due to its back ground.

A wide number of adequately composed backgrounds is supplied in Table 2 ; these types of have now been adjusted from real papers.4–9 Visitors might wish to compare this content in dining dining dining Table 2 aided by the abstracts that are original observe how the adaptations perhaps enhance in the originals. Remember that, into the interest of brevity, unnecessary content is avoided. A dual-acting antidepressant drug, has been established…” (the unnecessary content is italicized) for instance, in Example 1 there is no need to state “The antidepressant efficacy of desvenlafaxine ( DV).

Types of the back ground area of an abstract

The techniques area is often the second-longest part in the abstract. It will include sufficient information to allow the audience to know that which was done, and exactly how. dining Table 3 lists important questions to that your practices part should offer brief responses.

Questions regarding which information should be available in ideally the techniques part of an abstract

Negligently written methods parts lack details about crucial dilemmas such as for instance test size, amounts of clients in various teams, doses of medications, and extent regarding the study. Readers only have to flip through the pages of a arbitrarily chosen log to comprehend exactly exactly how typical such carelessness is.

dining dining dining Table 4 gift suggestions samples of the articles of accept-ably written methods sections, modified from actual publications.10,11 Visitors are invited to just just take unique note regarding the very very first phrase of each and every example in dining Table 4 ; each is filled with information, illustrating how exactly to convey the utmost volume of information with maximum economy of term count.

Types of the strategy part of an abstract